Tuesday, 2 April 2013



A 65 year old otherwise healthy woman presents with incontinence of urine on coughing, sneezing and laughing.
a)What important aspects in history will influence your subsequent management? 8 marks

b)What investigations would you perform and how would you manage her?12 Marks

-severity of incontinence and the impact on quality of life (QOL)*IMPORTANT
-other urinary symptoms; urgency, urge urinary incontinence, frequency, nocturia
-symptoms of voiding dysfunction; dribbling, hesitancy, poor stream, strain to void
-UTI symptoms; dysuria, haematuria, frequency
-Presence of bladder pain and prolapse symptoms
-Bowel symptoms- constipation, incontinence of faeces
-Past obstetric history including date of last delivery and reproductive intentions
-Fluid intake, caffeine, alcohol
-Previous treatment for incontinence including surgery

Key point here is ‘healthy woman’
Urine dipstick
Mid stream urine for culture
Bladder diary/ Frequency volume chart
Multichannel urodynamics only if conservative treatment has failed or if surgery is being considered or before surgery if there is clinical suspicion of DO/ previous surgery for SUI or anterior compartment prolapse/ symptoms of voiding dysfunction

Management include an examination (BMI, abdominal and pelvic examination; pelvic mass, palpable bladder; Check for presence of prolapse; Demonstrate SUI with moderately full bladder, 150mls)
  • Life style intervention: reduce weight, quit smoking, reduce/avoid risk factors, control medical disorders like asthma
  • Application of oestrogen cream/gels-controversial, there are some evidence that has shown , reduction in all type of incontinece
  • First line treatment should be supervised pelvic floor exercise/ muscle training (PFMT) lasting at least 3 months, there good evidence shown significant reduction in the incontinence esp. GSI ( 65-70%)

  • Duloxetine should not be used as first line treatment or should not be routinely used as a second-line treatment for SUI. (NICE guidelines)

Surgical options if conservative treatment failed;
-          retropubic mid-urethral tape ( Subject. & Object cure rate 85-95%)
-          open colposuspension (Subject. & Object cure rate 85-95%)
-          TOT
-          Intramural bulking agents
-          Artificial urinary sphincter
Not recommended for SUI;
-          Routine use of lap colposuspension
-          Anterior colporrhapy, needle suspensions, paravaginal defect repair, MMK procedure
-          Autologous fat and PTFE as intramural bulking agents

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